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Google Hacking, advanced operators


Google’s advanced operators are very versatile, but not all operators can be used everywhere, as we saw in the previous example. Some operators can only be used in performing a Web search, and others can only be used in a Groups search. If you have trouble remembering these rules, keep an eye on the results line near the top of the page. If Google picks up on your bad syntax, an error message will be displayed, letting you know what you did wrong. Sometimes, however, Google will not pick up on your bad form and will try to perform the search anyway. If this happens, keep an eye on the search results page, specifically the words Google shows in bold within the search results. These are the words Google interpreted as your search terms. If you see the word “intitle” in bold, for example, you’ve probably made a mistake using the “intitle” operator. ### <br>Intitle” and “allintitle”: search within the title of a page From a technical point of view, the title of a page can be described as the text inside the TITLE tags of a Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) document. The title is displayed at the top of most browsers when viewing a page, In the context of Google Groups, "intitle" will find the term in the title of the published message. **How to use**: ```intitle:"index of" "backup files"``` If we were to modify this query to allintitle:”index of”“backup files” we would get a different response from Google. ```allintitle:"index of" "backup files"``` Now, every hit contains both “index of” and “backup files” in the title of each hit. Notice also that the “allintitle” search is also more restrictive, returning only a fraction of the results as the “intitle” search. ### <br>Link: search for links to a page The link operator allows you to search for pages that link to other pages. Instead of providing a search term, the link operator requires a URL or server name as an argument. Shown in its most basic form, link is used with a server name. ```link:www.defcon.org``` Each of the search results shown in Figure 2.12 contains HTML links to the http://www.defcon.org Web site. The link operator can be extended to include not only basic URLs, but complete URLs that include directory names, filenames, parameters, and the like. Keep in mind that long URLs are much more specific and will return fewer results than their shorter counterparts. ### <br>Inanchor: locate text within link text This operator can be considered a companion to the link operator, since they both help search links. The inanchor operator helps search the anchor, or the displayed text on the link, which in this case is the phrase “current page.” This is not the same as using inurl to find this page with a query like `inurl:Computers inurl:Operating_Systems`. Inanchor accepts a word or phrase as an argument, such as `inanchor:click or inanchor:James.Foster`. This search will be handy later, especially when we begin to explore ways of searching for relationships between sites. The inanchor operator can be used with other operators and search terms. ### <br>Cache: show the cached version of a page As we’ve already discussed, Google keeps snapshots of pages it has crawled that we can access via the cached link on the search results page. If you would like to jump right to the cached version of a page without first performing a Google query to get to the cached link on the results page, you can simply use the cache advanced operator in a Google query such as `cache:blackhat.com` or `cache:www.netsec.net/content/index.jsp`. If you don’t supply a complete URL or hostname, Google could return unpredictable results. Just as with the link operator, passing an invalid hostname or URL as a parameter to cache will submit the query as a phrase search. ![googleHack](https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-pb-FVzDqJ-Q/YLSSqqaOmhI/AAAAAAAAAsg/qfIiLpXbAFInKZUclVkrzfiNHxszQdGegCLcBGAsYHQ/s2782/google-hacking-techniques.png) There are many more commands, which I'll cover in another post. If you like it, leave a comment or handshare to like the post.

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